Fundamentals of emotion regulation and social functioning of children between 0 and 3 years of age

1 Zakład Pedagogiki Specjalnej, Wydział Etnologii i Nauk o Edukacji, Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach, Cieszyn, Polska
2 Wydział Pedagogiki, Akademia Pedagogiki Specjalnej im. Marii Grzegorzewskiej, Warszawa, Polska
Adres do korespondencji: Natalia Józefacka-Szram, Zakład Pedagogiki Specjalnej, Wydział Etnologii i Nauk o Edukacji w Cieszynie, Uniwersytet Śląski w Katowicach, ul. Bielska 62, 43-400 Cieszyn, e-mail:

Psychiatr Psychol Klin 2016, 16 (4), p. 270–273
DOI: 10.15557/PiPK.2016.0036

The main purpose of the article is to present normal development of the child in the first period of life – early childhood, in terms of emotional and social development. The author presents different developmental milestones, paying attention to their causes and consequences for further development. The article takes into consideration the different phases of appearance of first emotions and their (self-)regulation. Self-regulation is regarded as one of the late core competences of a child, constituting the basis for the entire child’s social and cognitive development. In the subsequent parts of the article, the stages of social development are highlighted, with particular emphasis on the first behavioural signs such as eye contact and following the carer. Finally, the author also addresses the stages of moral development as a vital part of each child’s socialization. In addition, the article highlights how important parents’ competences are for the appropriate social and emotional development of the child and what the consequences of abnormal patterns of parenting are, including the lack or too much restriction of the child’s exploration. An important aspect is also how the development in other areas: motor and cognitive development, with particular emphasis on speech, often directly influences the emotional and social development of the child.

Słowa kluczowe: social development, emotional development, moral development