Early maladaptive schemas, parental attitudes and temperament, and the evolution of borderline and avoidant personality features – the search for interdependencies
Department of Clinical Psychology, Institute of Psychology at the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
Correspondence: Department of Clinical Psychology, Institute of Psychology at the John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Racławickie 14, 20-950 Lublin, Poland, tel.: +48 793 799 808, e-mail: dmacik@kul.pl
Psychiatr Psychol Klin 2018, 18 (1), p. 12–18
DOI: 10.15557/PiPK.2018.0002

Aim: The aim of the presented study was the preliminary verification of the Jeffrey Young’s theory of early maladaptive schemas and their role in the genesis of personality disorders. According to Young, negative parental attitudes towards the child and the moderating influence of the child’s temperament can develop the schemas. Coping with schemas shapes the traits of a personality disorder. Methods: Four hundred and thirty-five subjects from a non-clinical group were tested. They completed the Young Schema Questionnaire – Short Form (YSQ-S3), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders – Personality Questionnaire part (SCID-II), Questionnaire of Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitudes (KPR-Roc) and Questionnaire of the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour–Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI). The SCID-II was used to determine specific features of behaviour. For the presented study borderline and avoidant personality patterns were chosen. Results: Explanatory models were created using regression analysis. The models were composed of: 1) schemas, 2) schemas, temperament, 3) schemas, parental attitudes, 4) all variables. In the case of borderline features, the models explain 26%, 30%, 35% and 36% of the variance of personality traits, respectively. The most appropriate model 3 includes the following schemas: Abandonment, Defectiveness, Self-Sacrifice, Pessimism and parental attitudes: Overdemandingness, Autonomy, Overprotection of the father and Autonomy and Inconsistency of the mother. In the case of avoidant traits, models explain 40%, 47%, 41% and 49% of the variance, respectively. For avoidant traits temperament is more important than parental attitudes – significant factors are: Social Isolation, Vulnerability to Harm, Subjugation, Self-Sacrifice, Emotional Inhibition, Pessimism and temperamental traits: Emotional Reactivity and Activity. Conclusion: The presented preliminary analysis confirms Young’s theory of the schemas and their influence on the development of personality disorders.

Słowa kluczowe: early maladaptive schemas, temperament, parental attitudes, personality disorders